C++ concepts, introduced in C++20, provide a more expressive and readable way to constrain templates compared to the traditional SFINAE (Substitution Failure Is Not An Error)Â technique.

With SFINAE, you would typically use `std::enable_if`

and type traits to conditionally exclude template specializations based on certain type properties. Here's anÂ example:

```
#include <type_traits>
template <typename T,
typename = std::enable_if_t<
std::is_integral_v<T>>>
void process(T value) {
// Process integral types
}
template <typename T,
typename = std::enable_if_t<
std::is_floating_point_v<T>>>
void process(T value) {
// Process floating-point types
}
```

In this SFINAE approach, the `std::enable_if`

and type traits are used to create separate overloads of the `process`

function for integral and floating-pointÂ types.

While SFINAE works, it can lead to complex and hard-to-read code, especially when dealing with multipleÂ constraints.

With concepts, you can express the same constraints in a more readable and expressiveÂ manner:

```
#include <concepts>
template <std::integral T>
void process(T value) {
// Process integral types
}
template <std::floating_point T>
void process(T value) {
// Process floating-point types
}
```

Here, the `std::integral`

and `std::floating_point`

concepts are used directly to constrain the template parameter `T`

. The resulting code is cleaner and easier toÂ understand.

Concepts also allow you to define your own named constraints, which can encapsulate complex requirements and improve code reusability. ForÂ example:

```
#include <concepts>
template <typename T>
concept Addable = requires(T a, T b) {
{ a + b } -> std::same_as<T>;
};
template <Addable T>
T add(T a, T b) {
return a + b;
}
```

In this case, the `Addable`

concept checks if a type `T`

supports the `+`

operator and returns the same type. The `add`

function can then be constrained using the `Addable`

concept, ensuring that it only accepts types that fulfill the concept'sÂ requirements.

Overall, concepts provide a more expressive, readable, and maintainable way to constrain templates compared to SFINAEÂ techniques.

Answers to questions are automatically generated and may not have been reviewed.

This Question is from the Lesson:### Using Concepts with Classes

Learn how to use concepts to express constraints on classes, ensuring they have particular members, methods, and operators.