Standard Library Views

Thread-Safety of Views in C++

Are views thread-safe, and can I use them in a multi-threaded application?

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Views in C++ are not inherently thread-safe. Their thread-safety depends on the underlying container and how it is accessed. Since views do not own the data, any modifications to the underlying container can affect the views derived from it, potentially leading to data races in a multi-threaded context.

Thread-Safety Considerations

  1. Read-Only Views: If the view and its underlying container are only read from, then they can be safely accessed from multiple threads.
  2. Synchronized Access: When the underlying container is modified, synchronized access (using mutexes) is necessary to prevent data races.
  3. Immutable Containers: Using immutable containers can ensure thread-safety as their contents cannot be modified once created.

Example with Mutex

Here’s an example using std::mutex to synchronize access to a container and its view:

#include <iostream>
#include <mutex>
#include <ranges>
#include <thread>
#include <vector>

std::mutex mtx;

void PrintView(const std::vector<int>& Numbers) {
  std::lock_guard<std::mutex> lock(mtx);
  auto View = std::views::take(Numbers, 3);

  for (int Num : View) {
    std::cout << Num << ", ";
  std::cout << "\n";

int main() {
  std::vector<int> Numbers{1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

  std::thread t1(PrintView, std::ref(Numbers));
  std::thread t2(PrintView, std::ref(Numbers));

1, 2, 3,
1, 2, 3,


  • Mutex Locking: The std::lock_guard locks the mutex, ensuring only one thread accesses the view and its underlying container at a time.
  • Safe Multi-Threading: This approach makes the use of views in a multi-threaded context safer by preventing concurrent modifications.


While views themselves do not add thread-safety, careful management of the underlying container’s access can ensure safe use in multi-threaded applications. Always use synchronization mechanisms like mutexes when modifying shared data to prevent data races and undefined behavior.

Answers to questions are automatically generated and may not have been reviewed.

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