An introduction to the 5 main counting algorithms in the C++ standard library:

`count()`

, `count_if()`

, `any_of()`

, `none_of()`

, and `all_of()`

Updated

Published

Let's take a look at some useful counting algorithms available in the standard library. To access these, we need the `<algorithm>`

header:

`#include <algorithm>`

In this lesson, we cover the 5 most useful counting algorithms: `count()`

, `count_if()`

, `any_of()`

, `none_of()`

and `all_of()`

. Let's get started!

An introduction to the advantages of binary search, and how to use it with the C++ standard library algorithms

`binary_search()`

, `lower_bound()`

, `upper_bound()`

, and `equal_range()`

Updated

Published

The standard library search functions covered in the previous lesson, like `std::ranges::find()`

, are examples of * linear search.* We can imagine the algorithm simply progressing through our container in a straight line, checking every object in turn until it finds what we’re looking for or reaches the end of the container.

If our containers have many objects or we’re searching frequently, this can degrade our performance. These are $O(n)$ algorithms - that is, they scale * linearly* with the size of the collection we’re searching. If we double the number of objects, the algorithm takes twice as long to complete on average.

If our container is sorted, we can instead use * binary search* algorithms, which have better performance.

`std::ranges::subrange`

This lesson introduces std::ranges::subrange, allowing us to create non-owning ranges that view some underlying container

Updated

Published

When we want to create a non-owning view of some underlying container, we typically use the `std::ranges::subrange`

type from the `<ranges>`

header.

This lesson will provide a thorough overview of this type—how to create it, how to use it, and how to combine it with many of the other features introduced earlier in the chapter.

An introduction to the 8 main searching algorithms in the C++ standard library, including

`find()`

, `find_if()`

, `find_if_not()`

, `find_first_of()`

, `adjacent_find()`

, `search_n()`

, `search()`

, and `find_end()`

.Updated

Published

In this lesson, we cover the 8 most useful searching algorithms within the standard library: `find`

, `find_if`

, `find_if_not`

, `find_first_of`

, `adjacent_find`

, `search_n`

, `search`

, and `find_end`

.

All the algorithms in this section are available within the `<algorithm>`

header:

`#include <algorithm>`

We use these algorithms to traverse through our containers to find objects, or sequences of objects, in different ways.

An introduction to set algorithms, and how to implement them using the C++ standard library

Updated

Published

This lesson introduces the 5 main standard library algorithms that are used when working with * sets*. A set is a collection of objects that does not include any duplicates. For example, the numbers

`1`

, `2`

, and `3`

are a set.Within maths and computer science writing, a set is often denoted as a comma-separated list surrounded by braces, and we’ll use the same convention here.

For example, the set containing the numbers `1`

, `2`

, and `3`

would be written $\{1, 2, 3\}$

Some additional points are worth noting:

A detailed guide to generating a single object from collections using the

`std::reduce()`

and `std::accumulate()`

algorithmsUpdated

Published

In this lesson and the next, we introduce a range of algorithms that are designed to simplify large collections of objects into simpler outputs.

For example, we might have a collection of objects representing bank transactions, and we want to generate a simple object that includes some aggregate data. That could perhaps include information like:

- What was the total amount of all transactions
- How many transactions were there
- What is the average transaction value

In this lesson, we’ll introduce the `std::reduce()`

and `std::accumulate()`

algorithms, which remain the most popular way of implementing logic like this.

In the next lesson, we’ll introduce * fold algorithms*, which were added to the language in C++23, and give us more ways to accomplish tasks like this.

An introduction to the 6 new folding algorithms added in C++23, providing alternatives to

`std::reduce`

and `std::accumulate`

Updated

Published

Similar to `std::reduce()`

and `std::accumulate()`

from the previous lesson, these algorithms are designed to work on collections of objects and to return a single result.

For example, if we had a collection of objects in our shopping basket and wanted to calculate the total cost of all the objects, the fold algorithms would be ideal.

They offer additional options over `std::reduce()`

and `std::accumulate()`

. Most notably, there are six different variants, giving us more control over how our collection is combined.

They are also * range-based* algorithms, which gives us more control over how we define the collection of objects we want to use as input.

All the algorithms in this lesson are available within the `<algorithm>`

header:

`#include <algorithm>`

An introduction to the eight main comparison algorithms in the C++ Standard Library

Updated

Published

In this lesson, we cover all of the main standard library algorithms that are used to compare two collections:

`equal()`

: Determine if two collections contain the same objects, in the same order`is_permutation()`

: Determine if two collections contain the same objects, inorder**any**`mismatch()`

: Find the first position where two collections deviate from each other`lexicographical_compare()`

: Determine if one collection is "less than" another collection.`lexicographical_compare_three_way()`

: Determine if one collection is less than, greater than or equal to another collection`starts_with()`

: Check if the objects in one collection match the objects at the start of another collection`ends_with()`

: Check if the objects in one collection match the objects at the end of another collection`includes()`

: Check if one collection contains another collection - that is, if one is a subset or superset of the other

A practical guide to user-defined literals in C++, which allow us to write more descriptive and expressive values

Updated

Published

As a general goal, we want our code to be descriptive. In the very first lesson, we discussed the importance of having descriptive identifiers - which include variables and function names. A variable called `Health`

is more descriptive than one called `x`

.

The idea of custom types takes that idea further. Types like `Distance`

and `Temperature`

are inherently more descriptive than types like `int`

and `float`

.

In this lesson, we’ll see how we can even make * values* more descriptive. In the following code, it’s clear we’re adding a value of

`3`

to a variable called `Distance`

:`Distance += 3;`

But three * what*? Three centimeters? Three meters? Three kilometers?

With user-defined literals, we can be more expressive:

```
Distance += 3_meters;
Distance += 4_kilometers;
Distance += 5_miles;
```

Behind the scenes, these literals are calling functions that we can define to meet our specific requirements. Let's see how we can set this up

A guide to simplifying our comparison operators using C++20 features

Updated

Published

Let's imagine we have the following custom type, which simply stores a value, and implements an `==`

operator:

```
class Number {
public:
bool operator==(const Number& Other) const {
std::cout << "Hello from the == operator\n";
return Value == Other.Value;
}
int Value;
};
```

We create two objects of this type, and compare them using the `!=`

operator:

```
int main(){
Number A{1};
Number B{2};
if (A != B) { std::cout << "Not equal!"; }
}
```

Our type doesn’t have the `!=`

operator, so we’d expect this to fail. In C++17 and earlier, that’s exactly what happens:

`error: binary '!=': 'Number' does not define this operator`

But, from C++20 onwards, this program will compile, and run as we expect:

```
Hello from the == operator
Not equal!
```

This works because, behind the scenes, the compiler has * rewritten our expression*.