An introduction to set algorithms, and how to implement them using the C++ standard library

Updated

This lesson introduces the 5 main standard library algorithms that are used when working with * sets*. A set is a collection of objects that does not include any duplicates. For example, the numbers

`1`

, `2`

, and `3`

are a set.Within maths and computer science writing, a set is often denoted as a comma-separated list surrounded by braces, and we’ll use the same convention here.

For example, the set containing the numbers `1`

, `2`

, and `3`

would be written $\{1, 2, 3\}$

Some additional points are worth noting:

The examples in most of this lesson use integers, but a set can contain any type of object. For example, $\{red, green, blue\}$ is also a set.

Later in this lesson, we’ll show how we can use the algorithms with sets containing any type of data, including our custom types.

The sets we’re discussing here do * not* need to be stored in a container specifically designed for sets, such as a

`std::unordered_set`

or a `std::set`

.A set is a more generic concept than a type of container. Whilst a set can be contained in a `std::set`

, it doesn’t need to be. A set can be stored in an array, linked list, or a wide range of other possible containers.

The range-based algorithms in this lesson require the containers holding the set to be * forward ranges*. The iterator-based variations require the container to provide

Most of the containers we’ve seen are compatible, including `std::array`

, `std::vector`

, `std::list`

, `std::set`

and more.

The algorithms additionally require the input sets to be sorted. By default, they assume the sets are sorted in ascending order. That means if `A < B`

, then `A`

is before `B`

in the container.

Later in the lesson, we’ll see how we can override that assumption. This lets the algorithms work regardless of how our inputs are sorted, and even with types that aren’t even sortable.

Let's introduce the algorithms, which are all available within the `<algorithm>`

header:

`#include <algorithm>`

`includes()`

The most basic set algorithm checks if a set contains another set.

`std::ranges::includes(A, B)`

This will return `true`

if `A`

"includes" `B`

. In other words, it checks if all of the objects in `B`

are also in `A`

.

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <set>
#include <iostream>
int main(){
std::set A{1, 2, 3};
std::set B{1, 2};
if (std::ranges::includes(A, B)) {
std::cout << "A includes B";
}
}
```

`A includes B`

A set is sometimes referred to as a * superset* of any other set it includes. For example, if A includes B, A is a

We can also say B is a * subset* of A. The symbol sometimes used to communicate this is $\subseteq$, that is, the superset symbol with its direction reversed. For example, $\{ 1, 2 \} \subseteq \{1,2,3\}$

Note that the argument order matters here. If `A`

includes `B`

, that doesn’t necessarily mean that `B`

includes `A`

:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <set>
#include <iostream>
int main(){
std::set A{1, 2, 3};
std::set B{1, 2};
if (std::ranges::includes(A, B)) {
std::cout << "B is a subset of A";
}
if (!std::ranges::includes(B, A)) {
std::cout << "\\nA is NOT a subset of B";
}
}
```

```
B is a subset of A
A is NOT a subset of B
```

`set_union()`

The union of two sets includes any objects that are in * either* of the sets. For example, the union of $\{ 1, 2, 3 \}$ and $\{ 3, 4, 5 \}$ is $\{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 \}$

Within textbooks and other resources, the symbol $\cup$ is sometimes used to denote the union operation. For example, $\{ 1, 2, 3 \} \cup \{3,4,5\} = \{1,2,3,4,5\}$

The `std::ranges::set_union`

algorithm provides an implementation of this. Its basic usage involves three arguments - the two sets we want to use, and an iterator to where we want the union to be created.

We need to ensure there is enough memory in the result location to accommodate the union. The maximum size a union can be will be the combined size of both of the input sets.

Below, we resize a `std::vector`

to match that size, and then use the `std::ranges::set_union`

function to populate it with the union results:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{3, 4, 5};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(A.size() + B.size());
std::ranges::set_union(A, B, Results.begin());
}
```

After running this code, our `Results`

vector will have a `size()`

of 6 with the union $\{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 \}$ in the first 5 slots. We can shrink the result collection to contain only the union members by using the value returned from `std::ranges::set_union()`

.

This will be a `std::ranges::set_union_result`

struct containing three iterators, which may be useful for follow-up operations. The three iterators are:

- An iterator for the first set, pointing at where the range ended - equivalent to`in1`

`A.end()`

in this example- An iterator for the second set, pointing at where the range ended - equivalent to`in2`

`B.end()`

in this example- An iterator pointing to the last element of the union, within the result collection`out`

These three iterators are typically accessed using structured binding. The third tends to be the most useful in real-world applications, as it gives us an easy way to tell how big the union is, and to shrink the result collection to just contain those elements:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{3, 4, 5};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(A.size() + B.size());
auto [AEnd, BEnd, UnionEnd]{
std::ranges::set_union(
A, B, Results.begin())
};
std::cout << "Union Size: "
<< UnionEnd - Results.begin()
<< '\n';
Results.erase(UnionEnd, Results.end());
for (auto x : Results) {
std::cout << x << ", ";
}
}
```

```
Union Size: 5
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
```

`std::set_union()`

vs `std::merge()`

Earlier, we introduced the `std::merge()`

algorithm, which works similarly to `set_union()`

. The main difference is that a set - such as what is returned by `set_union()`

- cannot contain duplicates. An arbitrary collection - such as what is returned by `merge()`

- can.

In the previous example, our inputs where $\{ 1, 2, 3 \}$ and $\{ 3, 4, 5 \}$. These both include the number `3`

. Only one is in the union, yielding a set with * 5* entries: $\{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 \}$

When merging, both would be included in the result, which would generate a collection of * 6* objects:

`1`

, `2`

, `3`

, `3`

, `4`

, and `5`

If our two input sets do not overlap - that is, they contain no objects in common, the result of `set_union()`

and `merge()`

will be the same.

If two sets do not overlap, they are referred to as * disjoint sets*. For example, $\{ 1, 2, 3 \}$ and $\{ 4, 5, 6 \}$ are disjoint.

`set_intersection()`

The intersection of two sets includes all the objects that are in * both* sets. For example, the intersection of $\{ 1, 2, 3 \}$ and $\{ 2, 3, 4 \}$ is $\{ 2, 3 \}$

Within textbooks and other resources, the symbol $\cap$ is sometimes used to denote the intersection operation. For example, $\{ 1, 2, 3 \} \cap \{ 2, 3, 4 \} = \{2,3\}$

The `std::ranges::set_intersection`

and `std::set_intersection`

algorithms provide a way to create this intersection.

As with the union operation, we need to ensure there is enough memory in the result location to accommodate the intersection. The maximum size of a set intersection will be the size of the smaller of the two input sets.

The `std::min()`

function can help us here, returning the smallest value of its arguments:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{2, 3, 4};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(std::min(A.size(), B.size()));
std::ranges::set_intersection(
A, B, Results.begin()
);
}
```

Similar to the union algorithms, the `std::ranges::set_intersection`

algorithm returns a `std::ranges::set_intersection_result`

struct, with three members:

- An iterator pointing to where the range we provided as the first argument ended. In this example, it is equivalent to`in1`

`A.end()`

- An iterator pointing to where the range we provided as the second argument ended. In this example, it is equivalent to`in2`

`B.end()`

- An iterator pointing to the last element inserted into the result collection`out`

As with the union algorithms, these are commonly accessed using structured binding, and the third variable is the most useful:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{2, 3, 4};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(std::min(A.size(), B.size()));
auto [AEnd, BEnd, IntersectionEnd]{
std::ranges::set_intersection(
A, B, Results.begin())
};
std::cout << "Intersection Size: "
<< IntersectionEnd - Results.begin()
<< '\n';
Results.erase(IntersectionEnd, Results.end());
for (auto x : Results) {
std::cout << x << ", ";
}
}
```

```
Intersection Size: 2
2, 3,
```

`set_difference()`

The difference operation returns all the objects in the first set after any objects in the second set are removed.

Within textbooks and other learning resources, the subtraction symbol $-$ or division symbol $\\$ is sometimes used to denote a difference operation. For example:

- $\{ 1, 2, 3 \} - \{ 3, 4, 5 \} = \{1, 2\}$
- $\{ 3, 4, 5 \} \\ \{ 1, 2, 3 \} = \{4, 5\}$

We need to ensure there is enough memory in the result location to accommodate the difference. The maximum size of a set difference will be the size of the first input argument:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{3, 4, 5};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(A.size());
std::ranges::set_difference(
A, B, Results.begin()
);
}
```

The return value of `set_difference()`

is slightly simpler than the previous algorithms, as it returns a struct containing only two iterators:

- An iterator pointing to where the first range ended - equivalent to what is returned by`in`

`A.end()`

in this case- An iterator pointing to the last element inserted into the result collection`out`

As usual, these are commonly accessed using structured binding, and the `out`

variable is the most useful:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{3, 4, 5};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(A.size());
auto [AEnd, DifferenceEnd]{
std::ranges::set_difference(
A, B, Results.begin())
};
std::cout << "Difference Size: "
<< DifferenceEnd - Results.begin()
<< '\n';
Results.erase(DifferenceEnd, Results.end());
for (auto x : Results) {
std::cout << x << ", ";
}
}
```

```
Difference Size: 2
1, 2,
```

`set_symmetric_difference()`

The intersection of two sets includes all the objects that are in * either* set, but

For example, the symmetric difference of $\{ 1, 2, 3 \}$ and $\{ 2, 3, 4 \}$ is $\{ 1, 4 \}$

Within textbooks and other resources, the symbol $\triangle$ is sometimes used to denote the symmetric difference. For example, $\{ 1, 2, 3 \} \triangle \{2,3,4\} = \{1,4\}$

We need to ensure there is enough memory in the result location to accommodate the symmetric difference. The maximum size of a symmetric difference will be the combined size of both of the inputs:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
int main() {
std::vector A { 1, 2, 3 };
std::vector B { 2, 3, 4 };
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(A.size() + B.size());
std::ranges::set_symmetric_difference(
A, B, Results.begin()
);
}
```

The `set_symmetric_difference`

has the same return type as the union and intersection algorithms. It is a struct containing:

- An iterator pointing to where the range we provided as the first argument ended. In this example, it is equivalent to`in1`

`A.end()`

- An iterator pointing to where the range we provided as the second argument ended. In this example, it is equivalent to`in2`

`B.end()`

- An iterator pointing to the last element inserted into the result collection`out`

Below, we show an example of accessing these using structured binding, and using `out`

property for some common follow-up operations:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
int main(){
std::vector A{1, 2, 3};
std::vector B{2, 3, 4};
std::vector<int> Results;
Results.resize(A.size() + B.size());
auto [AEnd, BEnd, SymmetricDifferenceEnd]{
std::ranges::set_symmetric_difference(
A, B, Results.begin())
};
std::cout << "Symmetric Difference Size: "
<< SymmetricDifferenceEnd - Results.begin()
<< '\n';
Results.erase(SymmetricDifferenceEnd,
Results.end());
for (auto x : Results) {
std::cout << x << ", ";
}
}
```

```
Symmetric Difference Size: 2
1, 4,
```

In the introduction, we covered how the set algorithms assume the inputs are sorted in ascending order. That is, if `A < B`

returns `true`

, then `A`

should precede `B`

in the container.

This is customizable by providing an additional argument to the algorithm. This argument should be a function that will receive two objects from our set, either as values or, more commonly, by `const`

reference.

The function should return `true`

if the first parameter comes before the second parameter in our container.

Below, we use this argument to tell our algorithm that our inputs are sorted in * descending order*, rather than the default assumption of ascending:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <set>
#include <iostream>
int main(){
std::set A{3, 2, 1};
std::set B{2, 1};
auto Comparer{
[](const int& A, const int& B){
return A > B;
}};
if (std::ranges::includes(A, B, Comparer)) {
std::cout << "A includes B";
}
}
```

`A includes B`

Template function objects that implement simple binary operations like `>`

are available in the standard library. For example, our previous example could replace our lambda with a call to `std::ranges::greater()`

:

```
if (std::ranges::includes(
A, B, std::ranges::greater())
) {
std::cout << "A includes B";
}
```

The ability to pass a custom comparator allows our algorithms to work with sets containing any type of object, including those that are not inherently sortable. Below, we use a set algorithm with collections of custom types:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
class Character {
public:
Character(){};
Character(std::string Name) : Name{Name}{}
std::string Name;
};
int main(){
using namespace std::string_literals;
std::vector<Character> A{
"Aragorn"s, "Frodo"s, "Gimli"s, "Legolas"s};
std::vector<Character> B{
"Frodo"s, "Legolas"s};
auto Comparer{
[](const Character& A,
const Character& B){
return A.Name < B.Name;
}};
if (std::ranges::includes(A, B, Comparer)) {
std::cout << "A includes B";
}
}
```

`A includes B`

Here is a more complex example, where we create the union instead:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
class Character {
public:
Character(){};
Character(std::string Name) : Name{Name}{}
std::string Name;
};
int main(){
using namespace std::string_literals;
std::vector<Character> A{
"Aragorn"s, "Frodo"s, "Gimli"s};
std::vector<Character> B{
"Frodo"s, "Gandalf"s, "Legolas"s};
std::vector<Character> Results;
Results.resize(A.size() + B.size());
auto Comparer{
[](const Character& A,
const Character& B){
return A.Name < B.Name;
}};
auto [AEnd, BEnd, UnionEnd]{
std::ranges::set_union(
A, B, Results.begin(), Comparer)
};
std::cout << "Union Size: "
<< UnionEnd - Results.begin()
<< '\n';
Results.erase(UnionEnd, Results.end());
for (auto x : Results) {
std::cout << x.Name << ", ";
}
}
```

```
Union Size: 5
Aragorn, Frodo, Gandalf, Gimli, Legolas,
```

If we have a custom type where it makes sense for them to be sortable, we can implement support for that within the class itself.

This makes our classes more versatile and removes the need for standalone comparison operators like this scattered through our code. We will demonstrate how to do that later in the course.

Similar to other range-based algorithms, the set algorithms support * projection*.

This allows our objects to be projected into a different form before the comparison. We do this by passing a function that will receive an object in our container, and return the projection of that object that we want to use.

A common use case for this is when our objects are complex types, and we want the comparison to be done on a variable within that object.

Below, we implement our previous example using projection instead of a custom comparison. Two things to note here:

- We want to use the default comparer, so we pass a blank argument
`{}`

in that position - The subsequent arguments are two projection functions - one to use for the objects in the set we provided as the first argument (
`A`

in this example) and one to use for the objects in the set we provided as the first argument (`B`

in this example). In this case, we use the same projection function for both sets, but they can be different

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
class Character {
public:
Character(){};
Character(std::string Name) : Name{Name}{}
std::string Name;
};
int main(){
using namespace std::string_literals;
std::vector<Character> A{
"Aragorn"s, "Frodo"s, "Gimli"s, "Legolas"s};
std::vector<Character> B{
"Frodo"s, "Legolas"s};
auto Projector{
[](const Character& C){ return C.Name; }};
if (std::ranges::includes(
A, B, {}, Projector, Projector
)) { std::cout << "A includes B"; }
}
```

`A includes B`

The examples in this lesson all use the C++20 ranges library, but variations of all of these algorithms that work with iterator pairs are available instead.

To use the iterator versions, we need to:

- Remove
`ranges`

from the namespace qualification - for example,`std::ranges::includes`

becomes`std::includes`

- Replace every range argument with two arguments, forming an iterator pair. For example,
`A`

becomes`A.begin(), A.end()`

The following example shows this:

```
#include <algorithm>
#include <set>
#include <iostream>
int main(){
std::set A{1, 2, 3};
std::set B{1, 2};
if (std::includes(A.begin(), A.end(),
B.begin(), B.end())) {
std::cout << "A includes B";
}
}
```

`A includes B`

Note that projection is part of the ranges library. As such, the iterator variations of these algorithms do * not* support projection.

In this lesson, we explored set algorithms by delving into their implementation, usage, and customization.

- Sets can contain any type of object, not just numbers, and do not need to be stored in specific set containers.
- Set algorithms require their input ranges to be sorted and forward iterable.
- The C++ Standard Library provides five main set algorithms:
`includes()`

,`set_union()`

,`set_intersection()`

,`set_difference()`

, and`set_symmetric_difference()`

, each serving a unique purpose in set manipulation. - Custom comparers can be used to customize the sorting and comparison behavior of set algorithms, allowing them to work with custom types or non-default sorting criteria.
- Projection enables complex types to be compared based on specific attributes or transformed representations.
- Both range-based and iterator-based versions of set algorithms are available, catering to different requirements.

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Updated

Lesson Contents### Set Algorithms

An introduction to set algorithms, and how to implement them using the C++ standard library

This lesson is part of the course:### Professional C++

Comprehensive course covering advanced concepts, and how to use them on large-scale projects.